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42. Manchu Endur'i And Various Tungus Spirits

Among the Birarchen and Kumarchen under the name of endur’i several spirits are known which play the role of «masters». Many a spirit may be called by this term which is undoubtedly borrowed from the Manchus, in a recent time. The previously known spirits have been re-named, and the new ones have been adopted. So we have guska endur'i, — the «wolf endur'i», which is the old bannaca; toyo endur'i, — the «fire endur'i», which is the old golumta; n'ann'na endur'i, which is the old julask'i endur'i and still older buya. There are new ones, as ukur (the «cow») endur'i, murin (the «horse») endur'i also tudukan and mudurkan endur'i to which I shall return. Together with the new spirits and new names some new ideas were introduced as well. For instance, mudurkan endur'i and tojo endur'i are supposed to be opposite spirits which destroy each other, which sounds like a «philosophical» construction of alien (Chinese) origin. The group of endur'i is also called ajelga which will be discussed later too. However, the group of endur'i essentially is a Manchu group, and it is very numerous. Indeed, among the Manchus themselves it is not an original Manchu discovery. The term endur'i, as shown, is only a Manchu adaptation of a foreign term and the chief source of information regarding this group of spirits is found in the Chinese system. The Manchus do not accept all Chinese spirits, but make certain selection; e.g. according to the Manchus, they do not accept the spirit of commerce, quite important among the local Chinese merchants, as well as many other spirits. In the Manchu complex the chief distinction of these spirits is that they are not usually malevolent, although sometimes they may be so, and yet through their agents they may cause sickness. However, in such a case they are not influenced by the shamans, but they may be influenced only by prayers and sacrifices. These spirits do not enter the people themselves [271]. The same term is also referred to people of «right life» after their death. The spirits are supposed to live in the upper world in an ever green region, mentioned before (vide supra Section 37). Nature of the spirits is such that these spirits violate the women and girls, so a conception from them, coming to the women in sleep, is admitted by the Manchus as possible. I think that the Manchus, who are very naturalistic in this respect, admit such a possibility only as a good explanation of happenings disapproved of by the public opinion. However, sexual dreams amongst the females are common and thus there may be made a theoretical inference as to the possibility of pregnancy in exception of the natural way. The images of these spirits are known from the Chinese pictures which are usually used as usually used as placings for these spirits when sacrifice is served and these spirits addressed. In Manchu books, thirty-four spirits of this class are distinguished. Here I give a list of spirits, in the alphabetic order, which are commonly known.

Ajen endur’iThe spirit of thunder which depends on apkai endur'i [cf. akjan (Manchu Writ.)]. This spirit is not from the lower world.

Agura endur'iThe spirit of arms (agura) and utensils, in the calendar list it occupies twenty-eighth place. There is a festival organized during the summer. It may be noted that besides the arms, utensils in general are included.

Aizin endur'iThe spirit of gold [aisin—>aizin(Manchu Sp.)] which is supposed to be the spirit of commerce amongst the Chinese; it is the thirty-first spirit of the calendar list; its functions are the regulation of misfortune from the war, epidemics, drought, etc. Evidently aisin («gold») has brought to a new conception of the functions of this spirit.

Alin'i endur'iThe spirit of the mountains (alin). This spirit is connected with the regulation of the life in the mountains and forest. So the hunters and travellers have to address themselves to this spirit. This spirit is in use only among the ici manju (the new Manchus), but it becomes also known among other Manchus. Amongst the Chinese it is called sansenje. Under its orders are the tiger and wolf which have their own masters tasxa and guska endur'i who must have a special sacrifice [pig, chicken, bread (Chinese mantou)]. This spirit may be very harmful by its interference with the hunting and travelling, and with frightening the people with both tigers and wolves. This spirit is not given in the list of calendar spirits, but it is of great importance, for according to the Manchus, they «formerly lived as a wild people».

B'a endur'i -The spirit of the moon. The sacrifice is made in the evening (full moon) of 15th day of eighth moon. Its importance is not high.

B'iyan endur'i — The same as alin'i endur'i — but perhaps it is only a subordinate of alin'i endur'i, for the usual association of this spirit is with the tiger. Amongst the Chinese hunters this spirit is associated with any tiger met with which is not characteristic of the Manchu complex. In Manchu Writ, b 'igan — the «wilderness»; I. Zaxarov designates the spirit bigan i enduri as that of desert roads and steppes.

Busuku endur'iThe complex spirit of this name forms one of elements of the complex n'angn 'ang and has at its disposal two subordinate spirits: busuku mama and busuku gexe. The latter is extremely dangerous if she is not satisfied with the prayers and sacrifices. (vide Chapter XIII, description of the diseases). It is not found on the calendar list.

Gelxun endur’i mamaIt is probably one of the group of ongos'i mama. The functions are not clear. The bow and arrow with pigs bones attached and hung up when a boy was born, was called by this name. It is not found on the calendar list.

jousangThe Chinese spirit connected with hoje, vide laoje.

KwangungThe Chinese spirit connected with laoje and Jousang, vide laoje.

Laoje The spirit and its name are of Chinese origin. On the picture the spirit is shown on horse back and it is considered as «good for horses». In the case of sickness a pig sacrifice must be given to this spirit and his satellites (vide supra). During the sacrifice the horses must have long pieces of silk tied on their tails and manes. The horses during certain period must not be used by women and for carts. According to the Manchus, there were three Chinese heroes who, after their prayer to apkai endur'i, became brothers. One of them was laoje and two others were jousag and kwaggug. Their placing in the form of a picture is put in the kitchen garden at the left of the principal house, in a kind of a small shrine. All three spirits are often called endur'i and mafa.

Lung-wang-je -is a spirit borrowed with the name from the Chinese. Its functions are connected with the small streams and rivers. It is the oldest of the series. Its images (Chinese) are like that of apkai endur'i. However, it is also to be asked for protection by the people who navigate. In Manchu it is also called b'iba mudur'i endur'i, which seems to be connected with mudur'i endur'i (biba is not clear, but seems to be connected with stem bi — the «existence»). Vide infra Mudurkan of Northern Tungus.

Mujan vochkoalthough he is called vochko (vide infra) some Manchus consider him as a spirit endur'i helping, patronising the carpenters [mujan is in Chinese; in Manchu Writ. — moi faksi]. This spirit was not formerly used amongst the Manchus but at the present time he receives a certain popularity for protecting e.g. new constructions. As placing, or merely symbol the carpenter's rule made of bone is used.

Na i dalaxa endur'i [in Chinese Ty Weg] — is a spirit looking after the fields, also the construction of the house (in so far as the land is required). According to the Manchus, this spirit is independent, but it seems to me that it is only a different name (perhaps a different manifestation) of apkai endur'i. It is probably borrowed from the Chinese.

N'ang'ang endur'iThe complex spirit (vide supra busuku endur'i, also ongos'i mama) borrowed from the Chinese. The images are known from the Chinese but not used. The placing is made of earth, -with two faces, four eyes, and two noses, — which they put in the temple (m'ao).

Sou-sen-lao-endur'i — That spirit of Chinese name and origin which rides a reindeer. This spirit is addressed with prayer and sacrifices only by the old men. The Manchus evidently have no definite idea about it. It seems to be connected with certain conditions of senile marasmus Talmen endur'i — The spirit of fog [talman Manchu Writ) — the «fog»] which looks like a function of apkai endur'i.

Tarkin endur'iThe spirit of lightning, [cf. talk'an - the «lightning» (Manchu Writ.)] which looks like a function of apkai endur'i.

Tuye endur'iThe spirit of (heavy) clouds which looks like a function of apkai endur’i [cf. tugi (Manchu Writ.)]

Veye endur'iThe stone spirit; the complex spirit consisting of a mafa (old man) and mama (old woman). There are two large stones on the way from Aigun to Tsitsihar, which are supposed to grow. The stones are surrounded by a fence; little by little a temple was formed, because of the numerous visitors. Women who wish to have children address their prayers and make sacrifice in form of pieces of red tissue with thanks written upon them, which are hung on the fences. Warriors pray to this spirit for victory.

Wuce endur'i — The spirit of the door (wuce) [in Chinese mensenje], whose function is to protect the entrance against the spirits xutu (vide infra). Formerly it was used only by the Chinese but gradually it has been introduced among the Manchus.

Wuziya endur'iThe spirit of stars. It helps in the case of skin diseases, swellings, boils, etc. The greatest part of Manchu clans do not know this spirit, but some of them do, e.g. wujala, jaktu,, nimad, pujamci, wuze and some others. The pig sacrifice and prayers are made at night time. The fact of selection of clans is rather significant, but the clans are both fe («old») and ici («new») Manchu.

Xua endur'iThe spirit of the yard, which is the same as apkai endur’i.

There are some other spirits endur’i, e.g. protectors of smiths, particular forms of n 'agn 'ag, etc. also a group of spirits connected with the spirits of the lower world ilmunxan endur'i. The important spirits, fourteen in number, are represented, for instance, in the temple which was erected, according to the Chinese practice and style, by a rich villager in Kalunsan, a village near Aigun. The temple is called toksoiahan m'ao, i.e. of village, public (state, governmental, communal) temple, in which there is a picture of all endur'i painted in the Chinese style. At least twice a year, namely, during first five days of the first moon, and on the thirteenth day of the fifth moon, the villagers gather for prayers and sacrifices to all the spirits. The choice of endur’i to be managed in the public temples is not alike in different cases observed. There may be fewer or more than fourteen spirits [272]. Perhaps in the same group of endur'i there may also be included some other spirits which are not called endur'i, but the character of which is near to that of endur'i. These spirits have been introduced into the Manchu system after the classification of spirits in the calendar list had been made, so that among the Manchus they are known either without any classification or under the group of mafa. The spirits known under the name of endur’i may be also classified in a different manner, namely, the group of apkaiendur’i, in which there would be included talmen, tuye, tarkin, wuzin, ajen and others. However, these spirits now are more independent then they were originally and in this way apkai endur'i has already differentiated and as compared with the Calendar List some spirits of the group endur'i have already vanished. On the other hand, it would be also possible to separate another group of spirits headed by ihnunxan which I have not even treated under the name of endur'i. However, some of these spirits, as will be shown, practically have already become more important than ihnunxan himself. A new complex endur’i has been introduced under the name of n'angn'ang, which is of a recent Chinese origin, but which also plays a more important part than other spirits owing to the discovery (cognition) of certain diseases previously unknown. Among the Manchus who live on hunting or near the people who live on hunting, the complex spirit of mountains and forest has also appropriated more importance than, for instance, the spirits connected with the city life. Yet, we have also seen that there are some endur'i which are adopted only by some clans and are not recognized by other clans. As a matter of fact, to make a list of these spirits is impossible, for not only in different localities, but also in different professions (agriculturists, hunters, citizens, etc.), in different clans and even in individual families the lists are different. The Calendar List of spirits was only one of the static pictures which might be taken at that time. Indeed, it was reflecting the complex which existed among the authors of the List, so in other Manchu groups and regions the lists might be quite different. At the present time the complex also is different for in addition to the regional and other differences there now exists the difference in time. During the period from the moment of compilation of the List to the present moment many old spirits were excluded, the function of other spirits was changed and new spirits, chiefly from the Chinese complex, incorporated.

* * *

In continuation of the present section I shall now give a list of spirits which are found among the Northern Tungus groups observed. These are spirits which according to their character, origin, and present functions are very close to the Manchu endur’i. Here it may be pointed out that the list of spirits found in several Tungus groups is shorter than that of Manchu endur’i. This fact is interesting and can be easily understood if we remember a rather recent penetration of the Chinese spirits among the Manchus and lack of written records among the Northern Tungus who gradually forget their knowledge of alien spirits, and seemingly do not need to have a very long list of spirits.

Ajelga (ajelgan)so are called amongst the Birarchen two spirits ukur endur’i and morin endur'. However, there are many other ajelga which sometimes simply are the souls of dead people and which occupy some rock or mountain and become «masters». Yet, inmunkan(Bir.) may also be called mugi ajelga [273]. The etymology of ajelga is not clear. Perhaps ajelga has the stem aje ~ ejen, — «the master» etc. [cf. efil (e)|| ejele — to govern, rule, control. (Mongol, Bud.)] with which supposition the term may be rather recent.

DavaiThe spirit is known amongst the Nomad Tungus of Mankova and other Tungus influenced by the Buriats. It is supposed to protect the cattle. Its name is borrowed from the Eastern Buriats. Under the name of davai it is known among the Buriats as ongon [cf. C. Z. Zamcarano, (op. cit. p. 380) who says that although this spirit had originated from an educated (baksi) girl, who was a Buddhist, the spirit has become protector of cattle-breeding.]

D'umner'id'ira is known amongst the Barguzin Tungus as spirit of lightning [cf. N. D. Mironov, Kuchean Studies, p.p.76-77 (164-165) footnote in which d'umne (the stem, for r'id'ira are suffixes) is compared with Sanscrit (chiefly Vedic) dyumna — «splendor, majesty», also «lightning»]. The stem d'umne, in so far as I know, has no parallel and on Tungus soil no credible etymology.

japnaja is known amongst the Reindeer Tungus of Manchuria. This spirit is living in the lower world and eating, swallowing (Jap — to eat, swallow) everything.

jarajarguci is considered by the Tungus of Transbaikalia as master of the sea (lamu) which surrounds the earth, also master of all waters and fishes. It is anthropomorphic, but it has no legs. It has no placing. There is no doubt that we have here Mongol jar +jarguci, i.e. «the order», + «supreme judge» (cf. Kowalewsky, p.p. 2300, 2305), so that the Mongol complex has been adapted by these Tungus and «judge» seems to be quite alien in the Tungus complex.

j'iac'i is known amongst the Mankova Tungus as spirit protecting the tent (family, house). This spirit has been borrowed from the Buriats (also jiac'i). However, the affinities of this spirit may be easily established with jiac'i burkan of the Tungus of Manchuria (vide infra).

jol is known amongst the Khingan Tungus, Kumarchen and Birarchen, as a spirit protector of horses, also cattle. The name of this spirit is probably borrowed from the Mongols who have Jol, zol (Buriat, Podg.), the «happiness, way, fate» [cf. ibid. Yakuty'o/, Turk. jol] [274]. The placing for this spirit is made of a piece of leather about a foot square; in the upper part there are two anthropomorphic images, usually made of lead, one of which is a male and the other is a female — a couple of spirits. The leather may be also ornamented with tissue of various colour and beads. After the birth of new calves and colts there must be attached small bones to the placing and the spirits must be given a sacrifice («fed») and prayers. Amongst the Tungus Birarchen living in houses of Chinese type, the placing can be made of a piece of wood - a plank of the above indicated size and with the same details. Every family which has horses and cattle usually has one in its tent, or wigwam, or house. These placings cannot be approached by the women. Indeed, the spirit, its name, and the type of placing (like ongon of the Buriats) are borrowed. Perhaps we meet with the same spirit among the Goldi. In fact, juli (P. Simkevic, op. cit. p. 56), julin, juli (I. A. Lopatin. op. cit. p. 222) is considered as protector of the family and house. Let us point out that the house in Goldi is Jo (vide supra footnote).

Gurku is met with among the Barguzin Tungus. There is a double spirit called jur (two) + garku + tal. It consists of a couple, a male and a female; according to these Tungus, everything has originated from these two spirits. In the text of a shamanistic record I have met with the sky-heaven — n'jan'ja and moon — b'ega which also produce everything. The term n'jan'ja (with modification) (Bir. Nerc. RTM.) usually referred to the sky, in this function is met with only in this case. However, the idea of male and female spirits, sky — heaven, and moon, are common. Cf. also the Chinese complex female — male, — Yin-Yang.

Mudurkan (muduje)The spirit of water is met with among the Birarchen. He is male and is represented as a dragon (mudur). He has under five or six metres long, his control the fishes, regulation of water supply etc. He is also addressed in the case of needs for horses. According to the Tungus conception, he did not fight the apkai endur'i, which theory is of Chinese origin known to the Tungus but refuted by them. This spirit has a dragon-like straw placing five or six metres long, put on a heap of pebbles or stones. During summer, and especially droughts, the Tungus have a ceremony borrowed from the Chinese. This spirit is very popular among the Manchus as mudur'i endur'i [275].

Muktukan is known amongst the Kumarchen as a spirit of little importance. Perhaps its existence is due chiefly to the misunderstanding of the Manchu name for «temple» — apkaimuktexen. Although there is a name of a Tungus hero Mukteokan, he cannot be taken as responsible for the existence of the spirit, but his name might be that of a spirit formerly better known.

Nalkan, Om'i nalkan. is met with among the Barguzin and Nerchinsk Tungus. He is considered as «master» of a special group of spirits known under the name of ojan (vide infra Chapter XII) which live on the earth. He has only a head; the body and limbs are lacking. The Nerchinsk Tungus suppose it to be the chief spirit of uyidunda — the upper world. Kan is certainly «khan», so that the name is nal [276]. It has no placings. (cf. also om'is'i).

n'on'a is a very malevolent, or better to say dangerous spirit, living in the water, known only among the Khingan Tungus. No details are available.

Tamnidira is known amongst the Barguzin and Nerchinsk Tungus as spirit of fog, rain, clouds etc. which corresponds to talmen endur'i of the Manchus. Tamni (dira is a suffix) — the fog (cf. tamnaksa, tamna, tamnaya of various dialects).

Tudukan also Turkan and Tuduje is the spirit of the earth which is also called turkan (tur, — the «earth»). According to the Khingan Tungus and Birarchen he has a black face (like the Chinese picture). According to the Khingan Tungus, he lives under the earth and uses only a black horse. Therefore as ongun (vide Chapter XVI) he is given a black horse. The recent origin is especially clear for he is addressed on all matters concerning agriculture and partly horses (the Birarchen). This is a spirit of secondary importance. The spirit is sometimes called by the Birarchen in a Chinese manner tuduje. Placing of this spirit is usually a Chinese made picture. Amongst the Manchus from whom he is borrowed he is known as na i dalaxa endur'i.

271. But the Chinese, according to the Manchus, have a Shantung spirit — san-dunger- which speaks through the young boys and girls (11-12 years old). They cover their faces (eyes?) with a tissue and then children must show simultaneously similar number of fingers. The more the coincidences the better the harvest. The spirit enters the man who directs the operation. The Manchus say that this spirit is very little known in other provinces of China.

272. E.g. I knew a temple of this kind erected for preservation of forest and it was called: alban m'ao endur'i, so the Manchus believed that there was a special endur'i for the preservation of trees. However, such a spirit does not individually exist.

273. Here we have term mungi which may be suspected of being an old term. First of all, it must not be mistaken for mun 'i, i e «ours», — mu is not mun. Second, we have a series of spirits in the names of which we meet with this term. So amongst the Tungus of Yakutsk gov. (Lam.) there are two spirits buxe muyani (the spirit of the earth? — buxo) and tunger muyani (the spirit of the lake), where the stem muya is increased with suffix ni. There is in Turn, buyilkan — a kind of spirit. Amongst the Goldi we have spirits called muxan (I. Lopatin, op cit p.p. 227, 224). In Enissy dialect we have moxa — the forest, thickness. Perhaps, the spirits called mayun among the Nerchinsk, Barguzin, and Reindeer Tungus of Manchuria are also connected with the same idea (ajelga) and stem mungi undoubtedly is a contraction of some other complex which probably was of type muCV+ai contracted as mungi, where gi is suffix of «genetivus». On the other hand in Bir. Kum. Khin we have bua~boa (which are contractions of buya -boya) in the sense of «wild forest», «thickness». It is very likely that in this case we have buya~muya with variations which is a phenomenon met with in Tungus, e.g. mu~bu «we») in the original sense of taiga, «primitive forest» etc. In fact, the terms like buya, inmunkan, bamaca, and others originally are not Tungus terms, while muyan, moxo, buya in the sense of «forest» also mayun in the sense of «spirit of forest», in so far as I can see, have no parallels and look like a very old stem.

274. Cf. also joliy (Dshur, Poppe) — placing for spirits (during shamanizing) However, Poppe's translation is not certain. It would seem perhaps more natural to look for etymology into the Tungus dialects. In fact, we find very good words, namely, the house-family ju~jo ,but in Tungus jol cannot be formed from ju~jo in the sense of the name for a spirit. Yet, the functions of this spirit and ongon-like appearance point to its being borrowed from the above indicated groups.

275. Undoubtedly it is borrowed from the Chinese together with the ceremonies. Vide supra lung-wang-je. The drowned people instead of going to ilmunxan go to mudurkan.

276. Perhaps the etymology of this name is naixan (Manchu) — «the khan of earth» with new functions amongst these Tungus groups.

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