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50. Dona (Foreign) Burkan

AJELGA BURKAN is a burkan newly formed from a spirit discussed in Chapter XII. It seems to be of «night road». The manifestations are limited. There are two anthropomorphic placings which may be substituted for two actual hillocks which protrude in the marshes.

AJIN'I BURKAN (also called aji burkan) of Birarchen and Kumarchen is a complex spirit which contains seventy-two manifestations. The term ajin'i, or aji may be connected with aji — «the taiga, the steppe, and generally the place without dense population». But this is an indication as to origin of the spirit and not as to its activity, for as will be seen the ability of the spirit becomes very intensive in a dense population [318]. This spirit seems to be located in the south-eastern section of the sky, for the sacrifice (usually a cock) and placings are put in this direction, with relation to the campment [319].

The placings for this spirit are usually made by the painters who are specialists. The manifestations are different diseases. Three principal groups may be distinguished, namely, (I) or'ebar'i, which remains with the family and it is impossible to rid oneself or the family of this spirit. In all probability here the Tungus have in view such conditions which are perhaps hereditary and not very serious, or even mere predispositions to certain diseases which are not very infectious. In Tungus this term has no etymology and it does not sound like a Tungus term [320]. There is a placing for this group of manifestations: there are upper and lower roads; the manifestations comprise two dragons, two trees, also an'akan of which there are four for the lower road and five for the upper road. The upper part of the picture is filled up with birds, gadflies, flies and other insects. (2) Toriltan (also toreltan) is a group of manifestations which inhabit villages (and cities) and go from house to house (or wigwam to wigwam in permanent seasonal campments). The people affected by it have headache, fever etc.The etymology as to Birarchen seems to be simple, namely from toril (Bir.), — the «dust» [321]. However, the word toril,

— the «dust», — likely may be a new one while at the basis of toriltan is tor'i (Dahur, Poppe), tor||togeri (Mongol) (Rudnev),

— «to wander, to go round», etc. also tor'i (Dahur)||toguri (Mongol, Poppe) — «to walk, to go round». So that it may mean «spreading, infectious». 3) tulilangi buangi (aji burkan) is a group of manifestations which affect the people in the taiga, in the places where there are people. The etymology is clear: «of the outside, of the taiga». The same manifestations may also be called ajin'i sugdun, when sugdun is «steam», «vapour», immaterial substance» (cf. Manchu sukdun). The symptoms of its activity are such that one may suspect cases of pneumonia, typhus, typhoid fever, etc. i.e. the diseases which are more serious than those of the second group.

Here I give some details as to these manifestations as observed in different cases. (1) High fever, pain in the abdomen, no appetite, great weakness, no vomiting; the illness lasts about three weeks; the sick person drinks cold water all the time. The disease is «internal». No shaman can help, so that one of the experienced people must pray and give a sacrifice (a cock is preferable) before the placings The intervention of a shaman may result in an immediate death. This is tulilangi buangi. (2) Very high fever, followed by hallucinations, loss of consciousness, pain in the abdomen, head and limbs; great weakness; the disease lasts six weeks. (3) Very high fever in a small girl, if there is no change in the condition there must be tulilangi buangi.

The seventy-two diseases are distinguished as symptomised in cough, bad cold, pain in the neck, pain in the throat, eye trouble (not serious), ear trouble, headache, etc.

The classification of these seventy-two manifestations, according to the above indicated three groups, is subject to discussions. The above indicated nine small diseases are supposed to be carried by the spiders, gadflies, ants, butterflies, turtles, frogs, crayfish, ticks, and grasshoppers. This spirit has yet been mastered by the shamans. The whole complex is supposed to be of a very recent origin chiefly due to the mixing with other groups and living in the «crowded» villages. There are no permanent placings for the second and third groups, but during the sacrifice the Tungus make, depending upon the «road»: two of each, — dragons, birds and anthropomorphic placings, and four an'akan which represent the manifestations of the lower road (orgu okto) [322] and two dragons, and two birds with five an'akan for the upper road (uyu okto). For the sacrifice there is erected a special kind of platform as shown above. This type of platform is also used for some other sacrifices. However, some Tungus think that the above described placing for or'ebar'i may also be used for the other two groups of manifestations. So it probably is in their minds, but they do not want to keep the placings for the spirits may remain there for ever and thus may cause new troubles.

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BAJNACHA BURKAN (cf. supra) is known among the Birarchen. In case bainacha causes a disease a permanent placing may be made (in the form of a picture representing an old man and an old woman, sometimes with the children) which will be carried on with other savak'i. In this form bainacha would be called burkan, but it has, in so far as I know, only one road and only one active manifestation. It has not yet been mastered by the shamans and is met with very rarely as burkan.

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DALKUR BURKAN is known among the Khingan Tungus. About this spirit it is known only that it is very mischievous and dangerous.

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GECHAN BURKAN vide: num'in burkan.

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KADAR BURKAN known among the Kumarchen and Birarchen is rather rare. The name Kadar means «rock, cliff», where it made its first appearance. It is very likely that it is one of the forms analogous to ajelga. It has a placing made in the same form as that for other burkan [322]. It is also known among the Dahurs. There has been produced from this spirit a seven, which may give some additional light as to the character of this spirit.

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N'ANGN'AN BURKAN also is a very complex spirit known amongst the Khingan and Birarchen (I am not sure about the Kumarchen). The term as shown is of Chinese origin (vide supra). However, the Tungus language possesses a term of similar phonetic form usually n'angn'a, n'anggna (Bir. Ner. RTM) (Ang. Tit.) also known in Manchu [324], — the sky. Thus, in the Tungus etymology the name of the spirit may be connected with «sky». The spirit is located in the south-western section of the sky (heaven). It has great number of manifestations distributed between two large group, one male and the other female. The latter contains seventy-two manifestations which are various diseases chiefly in children.

Particularly, the manifestation of n'angn'a burkan known as measles is called n'ichukan on'in, — «the small mother». One of conditions of helping the child is to please the spirit, and first of all, all requests of the child must be immediately satisfied. This spirit likes fruits and for this reason the child must have, if possible, fresh fruits. The same method is used when the child is affected by the smallpox due to the spirit ilga on'in [325]. It may be noted that the wigwam or house are tabooed when the spirit shows its activity. In other words, the infectious character of these diseases is evident to the Tungus. In this group there may be also included chickenpox (sometimes called ilga borrowed from Manchu ilxa mama of the ongos'i complex), scrofula, and other diseases especially manifested in the skin troubles. The Tungus say that most of the diseases which appear in children in the form of skin trouble are due to this spirit. However, it ought to be pointed out that not all diseases are classified so, and seventy-two manifestations are perhaps formed by analogy with ajin'i burkan. The male group has been «born» in the mountains. - It has the same placings as the sumu burkan (vide infra). The placings are pictures made by the Chinese and representing the complex n'angn'ang. On the Tungus pictures there must be represented a white fox under the feet of burkan. The female group for the sacrifice has a placing which consists of three men (perhaps females?) made of wood. The spirit had been mastered by the shamans and became seveng.

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NIKOLA UGODAN BURKAN a newly acquired spirit with several manifestations, known amongst the Barguzin-Tungus. The spirit has originated from the Russians. As a matter of fact, it is merely Nikolai Ugodn'ik (Saint Nicolas) of the Orthodox Church much worshipped by the Russian low classes. This spirit has not been mastered by the shamans.

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NUMIN BURKAN OR GECHAN is a spirit which shows its activity where there are barracks with soldiers. Among the Tungus it is rarely observed. It comes from the Numin River. It seemingly has several manifestations which may he chiefly connected with the venereal diseases. The meaning of the second name gechan is not clear. I have seen no placings. This spirit has not been mastered by the shamans. As to the connection of numin with the name of the river I have some doubt. In fact, as we have seen on several occasions, alien complexes are adapted by the Tungus. It is very likely that here we have the name of honour of Erlik xan (already known as Inmunkan, etc.), namely, nomun xan which is so styled among the Mongols, as well as among the Dahurs, and which has received a new function among the Tungus.

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ONKOR BURKAN is a complex spirit, similar in organization to sumu burkan. It is known only among the Tungus, Birarchen and Kumarchen. It has originated in the mountains. As to the name it seems to be of Dahur origin, — ongkor, — «wild», «wilderness» etc., evidently a Dahur learned translation of the name of a Tungus spirit (cf. kadar burkan).

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SUMU BURKAN is a complex spirit which is known among the Kumarchen and Birarchen. It has come from the Dahurs together with the name [cf. sum (Dahur) sum~sumu (Xalxa) sume, (Mong.) — the «temple» (Poppe)]. The Tungus identify it with java mava of the Manchus amongst whom it made its first appearance. It has two groups: the night road consisting of a female with several girls, and placings, -two birds and two an'akan; and the noon road consisting of a male with several boys and corresponding placings.

This list of spirits which are not a direct consequence of the souls of dead people and which may cause diseases and various other troubles may be increased with some other spirits of less importance. If the investigation is carried out among other Tungus groups and in a more detailed manner among the groups like the Shingan Tungus and some Transbaikalian groups, amongst whom I did not stay for very long time, there may be found some spirits of importance. However, to what has already been described, there will not be added many details which would influence the inferences that we shall later make, so that I shall not enumerate the spirits which I shall not need for my further treatment.

318. It must not be compared with all, — «the village» — of some Tungus and Mongols. Vide infra, one of the manifestations, called ailn'i (of village); cf. Yakut ajikyt (Pek.).

319. One of them artistically made, was the creation of a Dahur master who worked under the direction of a Tungus shaman.

320. I have not found it in other Tungus dialects. Perhaps it may be regarded as a Manchu compound term in which or'i is «the male sexual element», and bar'i is «part, present», from ba+mbi, — «to become inefficient, weak, exhausted». Indeed, I do not insist upon this etymology. Still less I would insist upon a Mongol etymology from or\\oro (Rudnev), — «to come in, to blow (wind), to assume, to intrude etc.». Both suppositions are good for explaining the Tungus meaning of or'ebar'i. Let us remark that a Dahur origin of this term is the most probable. In fact, we have or'e«one's own» and bar'i «to keep, catch etc.», met with e.g. in combination jasbar'i. -«to bury» (Poppe).

321. In fact, toril — the «dust» may be produced from turi (the «earth, soil»), whence turtle turilchalan — «it became dusty» (Bir.). However, it is more likely that toriltan as it is derived by the Tungus from turi is a folk-etymology of a foreign term; vide infra.

322. The existence of the lower night road is denied by some Tungus and as placing they use only three an'akan.

323. Unfortunately, the only placing which I could see was in its great part eaten by a cow which succeeded in pulling this placing out of the box. The Tungus say that it was similar to that made for sumu burkan.

324. E.g. n'angn'a oxo or n'angn'a tuchixe - the clear sky has come out (out of clouds).

325. Identification of diseases was not always easy, so that not all of them could he connected with definite spirits of this group. Moreover, among the Tungus there is no perfect agreement as to the correlation between the spirits and diseases. Instead of ifga onin, the Tungus also used the term degde, a verb by which there is designated the effect, — «to come out on the surfaces

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