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1. Method of Anthropometry

The anthropological subjects measured consist of Chinese (396 males), Manchus (81 males and 50 females), Koreans (142 males), Dahurs (49 males), Tungus of Urulga [1] (65 males and 16 females), Tungus of Barguzin and Nerchinsk [2] (85 males and 26 females), Tungus of Amurland [3] (27 males and 34 females) and Tungus amalgamated with the Russians (16 males). Besides these series I have some measurements I cannot use for comparison because of the limited number of individuals.

In the present work my principal attention was devoted to the Chinese series; the other series mentioned above were taken only for comparison, therefore I shall omit the complete analysis of them. The Chinese series is composed of men from Shantung (185), Chihli (114) and Manchuria (96). The Korean series is composed of men from Northern Korea and the Maritime Province of Siberia. The Manchu and Dzhur series are composed of men from the Aigun district of Hei-lung-kiang.

The measurements were taken with the instruments made by P. Hermann, Zurich, and consist of the anthropometer and two callipers. The points on the trunk and limbs as also those on the head and face were taken according to the list of measurements elaborated by the International Commission in Geneva in 1912 [4].

With the anthropometer the points were taken as follows : 1. Stature. 2. Height of the ear hole. 3. Height of the supra-sternal notch. 4. Height of the acromion. 5. Height of the upper edge of the head of the radius. 6. Height of the tip of the styloid process of the radius. 7. Height of the tip of the middle finger. 8. Height of the upper edge of the great trochanter. 9. Height of the knee-pint. 10. Height sitting.

With the callipers the points were taken as follows: 11. Maximum length of the head. 12. Maximum breadth of the head. 13. Minimum frontal breadth (diameter). 14. Physiognomical length of the face. 15. Anatomical 1ength of the face. 16. Interzygomatic breadth. 17. Gonial breadth. 18. Internal interocular breadth. 19. External interocular breadth. 20. Height of the nose. 21. Breadth of the nose. 22. Greatest length of the ear. 23. Greatest breadth of the ear.

The stature was taken two times: the first time the individual measured was standing with his back to the instrument to take the stature as such; the second time he was standing at 3/4 profile to the instrument to take the stature and immediately height of the ear hole (from the ground). It was thus possible to work out the height of the head by the subtraction of the height of the ear hole from the stature. Unfortunately the point of the lower end of the tibia was not taken because the anthropometer was always fixed on a plank sa that it would have been necessary to change the position of the individual one time more. That was very inconvenient during the field work [5].

The length of the upperarm was worked out by the subtraction of the height (from the ground) of the upper edge of the head of the radius from the height of the acromion. Other absolute measurements were worked out as above described (See the Roman numeration of the table below). The relative measurements were worked out by the division of a certain absolute measurement by the absolute measurement taken for comparison, and multiplied by 100 for example :

Relative length of the arm=(absol. length of the arm/stature)*100.

The characteristics was worked out as follows : Measurements taken with the anthropometer.

Absolute measurements.

I. Stature (1) (Arabic see above).

II. Height of the head, (1—2).

III. Length of the upper arm, (4—5)

IV. Length of the forearm, (5—6).

V. Length of the hand, (6—7).

VI. Length of the arm (4—7).

VII. Length of the leg, (8).

VIII. Length of the thigh, (8-9).

IX. Height of the knee-joint, (9).

X. Length of the trunk, [10—(1—3)].

Relative measurements.

XI. Height of the head =((I-II)/I)*100

XII. Length of the arm =(VI/I)*100

XIII. Length of the upperarm =(III/VI)*100

XIV. Length of the forerarm =(IV/VI)*100

XV. Length of the hand =(V/VI)*100

XVI. Length of the leg =(VII/I)*100

XVII. Length of the trunk =(X/I)*100

The measurements taken with the callipers: Absolute measurements.

XVIII. Maximum length of the head, (11).

XIX. Maximum breadth of the head, (12).

XX. Minimum frontal breadth, (13)

XXI. Physiognomical length of the face, (14).

XXII. Anatomical length of the face, (15).

XXIII. Height of the forehead, (14—15)

XXIV. Intezygomatic breadth, (16).

XXV. Gonial breadth, (17).

XXVI. Internal interocular breadth, (18).

XXVII. External interocular breadth, (19).

XXVIII. Ocular length = (14-15)/2.

XXIX. Nasal length, (20).

XXX. Nasal breadth, (21).

XXXI. Length of the ear, (22).

XXXII. Breadth of the ear, (23). Relative measurements (indices).

XXXIII. Cephalic index =(XIX/XVIII)*100

XXXIV. Height of the head to the length of the head=(II/XVIII)*100.

XXXV. Height of the head to the breadth of the head =(II/XIX)*100.

XXXVI. Physiognomical facial index =(XXIV/XXI)*100

XXXVII. Anatomical facial index =(XXII/XXIV)*100

XXXVIII. Gonial index =(XXV/XXIV)*100.

XXXIX. Nasal index=(XXX/XXIX)*100

XL. Auricular index=(XXXII/XXXI)*100

XLI. Frontal index=(XXIII/XX)*100

The facial index (XXXVII) is taken sometimes by anthropologists as (length of the face/interzygomatic breadth)*100, because the indices are always >100. It will be more illustrative and easier during the calculation to take this index, as I did above.

Of course, besides these measurements it is possible to take and work out some others, but as regards anthropological characteristics, the measurements taken by me will be sufficient for my purpose, namely to discover the anthropological types that compose the present Chinese. This list of measurements taken on living persons and the characteristics later worked out constitute my anthropological investigations of the Asiatic ethnoses.

1. Nomad Tungus who live near Chita, Transbaikalia.

2. Reindeer Tungus, who live within the Northern Transbaikalia.

3. Namely Tungus who live on the banks of the Amur River near Aigun of Hei-lung-kiang.

4. Revue Anthropologique, No. 7-8. Juillet-Aout, 1913. p. 281 ff. This list is generally used in Russia. The list ehborated by the Commission in England does not differ from this except in the measurement of the physiognomical length, of the face.

5. This measurement is not of great interest because of the insignificant variations of it among different ethnical units, — ethnoses. I use the term ethnos for the unit of ethnological investigation, i.e., tribes, nations, peoples and so on. The motives which led me to introduce this term have been presented in my work «Ethnos. — The General Principles of the Ethnical and Ethnographical Variations.» (In Russian, Shanghai, 1923).

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