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53. The Type B

As has been presumed, the type B is characteristic for the Koreans. Besides the Koreans, this type has been observed among the Gilyaks and some influence of it has been noted also among the Chinese and Manchus. It was supposed, that it belongs to the original population of Manchuria, Korea and the whole basin of the Amur River.

The Amur River as a great road of this region was always populated by the leading ethnical groups. At the early time it was populated by the palaeoasiatic tribes; during the Mongol control over this region the Mongols left their traces; at the time of first Tungus Dynasty (Kin) the Tungus occupied probably this valley; finally the Manchu colonies were established on the banks of the Amur River and are living there up to the present time. The alternation of the leading ethnical groups and endless wars between them left several archaeological traces. In fact, all the valley of the Amur River, especially, as far as it is known, in the Middle basin of this River, is covered with the remains of forts, walls, cities and so on. On the skeletons excavated from the cemeteries can be seen traces of arrows and various cutting side-arms. After that it is natural that the original population of this region was finally assimilated and amalgamated by other invaders. Only in Korea this type is largely represented and evidently is a fundamental type. This phenomenon may be explained by the peculiar geographical position of Korea, which is isolated from the rest of this region. First, she is surrounded by the sea, secondly she is by the side of the great highway of migration and separated from it by a mountain chain and forest line. So that relatively parsive resistance was sufficient to stop the enemy's attempt. Notwithstanding this isolated state the Koreans themselves from time to time spread their influence outside their territory and were also subjugated by other ethnical groups. Therefore the Koreans, as well as all relinquished biolog cal units show quite peculiar characters.

Other palaeoasiatic groups were dispersed on the territory of Siberia and parts of China, so that very insignificant groups of them are now living on the borders of their former area. The Gilyaks, Chukchee, Yukaghirs and the little tribes on the banks of the Enissy River are the last remains of this brilliant past.

Thus the boundary of the type B is very spacious, but the distribution of this type within it is very sparse. In the past it was probably the sole type within Manchuria and, may be, also within the present Shantung and Chihli provinces. That must be so because the ancient inhabitants of Korea living near the sea must be good navigators. In fact the Koreans some hundreds of years ago were very able navigators and lost this knowledge only because of the political conditions of Korea, as did for example, the Manchus, who were also very courageous seamen.

Besides, the contact between the Koreans and Chinese and the alternation of the Korean and Chinese control over Korea must leave some anthropological traces on the Chinese. As well as the type Γ, the type B among the Chinese can be of ancient orgin and modern origin.

Thus, the type B seems to be the most ancient type located now within limited regions. Lack of osteological evidence from the southern region of the former area of this type does not permit me to be more positive and to trace the approximate boundary of the former distribution of this type [104].

104. Here I must note that my definitions of the «early» and «ancient» time are, of course, very relative definitions. Might be that further investigations, especially archaeological excavations, will urnish new evidence concerning the palaeolithic man of this area. All the populations under discussion in the present study are known as relatively, to the human existence, modern. The culture of the hypothetical population of the Amur River basin belongs to the later neolithic period. It may also be that the type B of the present study had more limited distribution and was connected with the population of the Far-Eastern coasts only.

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