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53. List Of Seven

The list of seven here given is based upon that recorded among the Birarchen, but I shall make references to other ethnical groups when it is possible and needed.

ADAR cf. ODAR is a clan seven (Kargir and Dunankan clans) of minor importance. It has only one group of manifestations of night-female-low road, with two anthropomorphic manifestations, two birds and two fishes addr. It is supposed that this seven is now found in a reduced form after the division of the clan (probably kargir clan at the beginning of the last century). This seven is supposed to stay in the water (river).

ANGNA is a well known dona seven met with among many shamans. When the spirit introduces itself the person becomes insane (olon vide infra Chapter XX). No placing is made. Naturally it is of middle road, called by special name angna road. Perhaps it is merely the third group-manifestation of the kadarn'i seven (vide infra).

AGDIDARIL is a clan seven met with in several clans and considered as a very important spirit. Agdi means «thunder», diril means «the seven of night road». If the clan has no such spirit and if a member of this clan should meet on his way in taiga a tree struck by lightning the man may become very sick unless a kaidun diril were made which will remain as a clan seven. It has manifestations of night road daril us'i dolbor represented in the form of two an'akan. It has also a complex of nine males and nine females (women). One of its manifestations is the brown owl in which form the shaman goes. Yet there are several other animal manifestations, — the tiger, leopard, crane, boa-constrictor and dragon. It may also be noticed that during the performance, wormwood is used as incense. This seven is supposed to have preference for staying in the clouds.

In another clan I have found two groups: (1) Midday road with the manifestations represented as a wigwam put on nine trees, two dragons, nine birds, nine an 'akan with three rainbows and nine bunches of grass on the right side of the wigwam. The complete sacrifice comprises a reindeer (Cervus Elaphus), two roe-deer, and nine of each, wild geese and ducks. (2) Night road with the manifestations represented as two trees, two anthropomorphic placings; the pig is used as sacrifice.

AJA AMTASAL — AM'ISAL (The second term is not correct though it was regularly used by an assistant shaman), — aja («good») amtasal («forefathers») [341] evidently is a seven which was formed from the ancestors, perhaps not very old. I have never met such a spirit among other Northern Tungus groups. I think it might be an imitation of the Manchu complex (vide infra), particularly the clan vochko. With this spirit the shaman may go to the lower world. I suppose there may be no special placing. The spirit must be of lower, midnight, north-western road. A red string is put on the neck of the sacrificial animal.

BUSEKU is a special seven which is neither dona nor clan seven. Its description is alreally known from that given in Chapter XIII (vide supra). This spirit has been mastered by some shamans, — I knew a shaman amongst the Birarchen and another shaman among the Dahurs (vide infra). Owing to the character of this seven it is considered as bad and the work with it dangerous. The placing is the same as that used for calling on the spirit. The shamans use this seven in order to neutralise disastrous activity of the spirit.

CHUCHUN, vide malu seven.

CHULOGDI, vide malu seven.

DEGI, vide malu seven; indeed, deyi (bird) manifestations are common in other seven, as well.

DEREGDE, vide malu seven.

DJAGDAR is a special seven which is transmitted in the clans by the shamans, though is not considered as a clan seven. Etymologically jagdar ought to he connected with jVgd, of various dialects [cf. jekse (Manchu)], — «burn», «fire», etc. When the people burn any part of the body, the shaman may use this spirit for healing. There are three roads represented by different manifestations:

1. Middle road: two birds (made of straw or dry grass) and nine an'akan (wooden).

2. Noon road: five birds and five an'akan.

3. Night road: four an'akan, two birds, and two boa-constrictors.

When the seven is introduced into the shaman, the latter may touch red-hot iron, put his hand into the burning charcoal, boiling water etc. When the spirit is introduced the fire, including tobacco pipes, must be covered with something in order to avoid the introduction of the spirit into the pipes, fire place, etc. This spirit is especially common among the Dahurs, and as we shall see, among the Manchus. However, only among the Tungus does it attain such a complexity. No connection exists between golumta and this spirit. The fire in the fire-place connected with golumta must also be protected. Indeed, this spirit is borrowed by the Tungus.

DJERGA [DARIL and SERA DJERG'I] according to my information, is a very important clan seven which contains three roads, namely,

(1) jerga (or j'erg'i) middle and neutral road: nine an 'akan, five birds, two dragons;

(2) s'era j'erg'i, male noon road: five an'akan, nine small birds; this manifestation usually comes first, before the third road;

(3) j'erga daril, female, night road, which may be also called dolborus'i: four birds, two an'akan, two boa-constrictors. The terms are somewhat ambiguous s'era is «rain-bow», and j'erg'i is «kind, sort» in Mongol [cf. jirxe ||jerge, also Dahur jergi (Poppe)] and Manchu (jergi). However, the Tungus have different term for «kind, sort» etc. j'erga is never used in the sense of j'erg'i, but in some dialects (e.g. Mank.) it is used instead of Mongol jegerde the red colour (for horses), whence jarda (Bir. Kum.). Whether jerga (Mank.) is the same as jerga (Bir.) in the name of the seven now is difficult to say. The functions of this seven could not be exactly established.

DJEIDJ'I (jeij'i) is a dona seven (in some clans it may be clan seven), very old and very important. It is identified by the Tungus (Birarchen) as j'iaci burkan. It has two manifestations, two dragons, which are supposed to live in the South and are of the noon road. The spirit, as a complex, lives in the South-West. I have not heard about the night roads.

DJUNGEN KAIDEN is a dona seven, but it seems to be one of the group kaiden (vide infra). No details regarding jungen are known.

IBAYAN is not a clan seven. When it introduces itself into a man, the latter is very likely to become a shaman. It is evident that ibayan seven is a spirit borrowed from the Manchus in so far as the name is concerned (vide supra). Perhaps there was a certain change of meaning wben the spirit was adopted by the Tungus for they already knew bog corresponding to bayan of the Manchus.

ILAVUN, vide malu seven.

ISELA, vide malu seven JOKO, vide malu seven KA'AN, vide malu seven

KADARN'I (or KADAR) may be both clan and dona seven. The term is only indicative of the origin of the spirit, — from the rocks. If this spirit is a burkan, when mastered, it may be a clan seven. But there are also many spirits which may originate in the rocks and they would be called kadar, and they will be dona. I will give some cases from which the character of this spirit may be better seen.

«A man was hunting in the mountains when he saw a white roe-deer [in so far as I know a white roe-deer does not exist unless it is a case of albinism]. He shot at it but failed to kill the animal and lost his mind. He began to run aimlessly and soon became shaman. This spirit is the chief spirit of this shaman.» The sacrifice consists of a Cervus Elaphus, the placings are two hillocks with the grass bound with a string like hair and put on a platform erected on piles. As a matter of fact, this ritual is very likely to be the same as that for ajelga burkan.

Another case of the same spirit is: «A man forty years old began to lose his mind. Once in the evening during the hunting he was challenged by a dona seven. After fighting with the spirit he returned home with a dirty faces, broken hat, and a broken instrument for holding ever-burning fire [341]. Then they made a placing and he shot with his flint gun. After this he became normal. Soon after this he again lost his mind and then he had to make a costume and drum and to become shaman. Then it became evident that this was a kadar seven, and a dona which wanted to fight the man.» This seems to be an incidental Kadar seven which may be opposed to a regular kadarn'i seven. The latter has three groups, with manifestations by three roads, namely,

(1) middle road, with five an'akan and four birds;

(2) male, noon road, with four an'akan, five birds and two dragons;

(3) female, midnight road, which may also be called angna (vide supra) or kuliljin (vide infra) with two an'akan and two boa-constrictors.

KAlDUN is a clan seven, mastered kaiden burkan. There are very few shamans who may have it.The Tungus interpret kaidun seven, as a «free, independent» spirit. The night road — kaidun (kaiden) daril is held as responsible for mental disturbances [cf. supra, agdi daril seven).

At the present time it actually is a clan seven, but formerly dona and it is considered as dona. No sacrifice is given. This seven is very «bad», — should a person die because of its activity it would make its home in the lower part of the skull, with the apertures for the eyes as windows; from the intestines, it would make the bridle; it would make its cup from the skull. There is only one road, — male, noon road with two an'akan, two birds with heads turned on one side and called murchil deyi, i.e. «birds having horses». According to one of my informers, karol is merely a noon manifestation of a seven the midnight manifestation of which is kaidun. Cf. mokun'i karol burkan (vide supra).

KOLTONDE, koltongde, vide malu seven.

KULILJIN (vide supra Kadarn'i) is midnight manifestation of kadarn'i seven. Kuliljin is probably from kuli (n) — the «snake»; it can be understood as «one acting with the snakes» (cf. also kulin seven).

LAMALAICHEN is a dona seven in its manifestations absolutely similar to n'angn'a seven with which it is closely connected. When dealing with it one hs to erect two high posts. Its origin is closely connected with Lamaism, — the name is lama, — the priest (lamaist), — and the spirit is considered as being of Mongol origin.

MALU is a clan seven which must be mastered by every clan shaman. It is known in different manifestations among all Tungus groups here discussed (vide malu) which continue shamanistic practises. Among the Birarchen and Kumarchen at the present time there is only a female midnight road; the male, neutral, noon and other manifestations have separated themselves long ago. As essential difference from other seven malu has permanent placings carried by the shamans. Yet, on the occasion of shamanizing they also make new ones which may differ in size. I have seen slightly differ from those of malu burkan. Each manifestation, separately, is also called a certain seven. Here is a list of manifestations.

1. Two kit'an (cf. kagan) which are two females (women)

2. Two deregde (cf. deregde in malu burkan)

3. Two koltongde (cf. P. Simkevic, Addition III)

4. Two magnge yin dilchi (cf. malu burkan)

5. Nine joko, i.e. the Yakut seven which have in been incorporated

7. Two deyi, — «birds», — which are used as manifestations for the shaman's travelling in the air

8. Two mudur — «dragon» (they may be represented as P. Simkevicjarga, cf. Addition V).

9. Two chulogdi [they may be called also chuchu (n) (r and / for «plural»)], - i.e. one-legged seven which is useful for transportation of the souls to the world of death. Cf. doxolo age of the Manchus.

10. Two ila'vun, — i.e. «one who makes «dry» «thin»; it seems to be a spirit causing and helping the shaman in the case of exhaustion (some diseases).

11. Two samyali, i.e. «the one with a broken chest», for treatment of the tuberculosis.

12. Two takan, i.e. «beam» put e.g. across a small stream (bridge), which is used by the shaman when he needs to cross the river for taking the souls of the dead people or to reach the world of death with other intentions. One may also see:

13. Two isela, — lizards (cf. P. Simkevic xafajarga of Goldi) which are needed by the shaman for crossing water.

14. Two kulin, — snakes; these manifestations are needed for crawling without being noticed by one's enemies.

15. Two odar, — fishes with horns (a kind of carp) of very large size, considered very important, almost like dragon (mudur). This fish may break the ice in the frozen rivers. It seems to me that it is the kaluga (a fish related to the sturgeon). It is also used as bridge (cf. takan).

Theoretically, there may be some other manifestations. Usually the shamans have at the beginning of their activity only three or four animal manifestations (especially female shamans), and not all manifestations are mastered. For shamanizing the Tungus fix in the ground a small stick on which they hang up the placings. The general conception of malu seven is that originally it was a man, deformed by various diseases, who now shows how to cure them (different manifestations) and when mastered it helps in various diseases (as described in malu burkan), in carrying on the soul of dead clansmen etc. This seven is supposed by many Birarchen to have come from the reindeer Tungus of the Amur and Yakutsk governments.

MANGl JEYIN DILCHl vide malu seven and malu burkan.

MOMATE so may be called malu seven, for the placings are made of «wood» (cf. supra).

MUDUR vide malu seven. Indeed, mudur manifestations are met with in many other manifestations, but when the Tungus say mudur seven they understand malu group.

N'ANGN'A also n'ongn'a is a clan (in some) or dona (in some other clans) seven which is mastered n'angn'ang) burkan. The best known effect of the seven naturally is smallpox, a manifestation called avacha n'angn'a. The spirit has originated from a female — animal (unknown). This spirit has three groups of manifestations in which, in so far as I know, the sex of the roads is not distinguished, namely,

(1) Three anthropomorphic manifestations.

(2) Noon roads with five birds and two an'akan.

(3) Midnight road with two birds and two an'akan. The lamalaichen seven is very closely associated with this spirit.

N'IRGIR in some clans is a very powerful clan seven. It is also called the seven of storm. However, n'irgir is a name of a clan (vide SONT) and it is supposed by some Tungus that it originated in this clan. There are two groups of manifestations, namely,

1. Noon road with seven or nine trees, two dragons, three rainbows, also an 'akan and birds, seven of each.

2. Midnight road with two an'alcan and two birds.

SAGI, Sag 'i (or odin) is a saman'i seven; sag'i is «the whirl», odin is «the wind»; it has only one road which contains nine whirl winds coming from different directions, which have no placings, and five birds made either of straw or grass.

SAMGALI vide malu seven

S'ERA DJERG'I vide j'erga seven

SOLONGO solongo is an animal (mustela solongo) manifestation which has grown into a complex seven. I have no details regarding this seven. It may be supposed that it is connected with the Manchu-Chinese complex.

SUNUSUN is a clan seven (in the dunankan clan). It formerly was a shaman who died and his soul was not allowed by spirits to go to buni. In this complex there are found his own father, mother, wife and children. Therefore when this spirit enters the shaman the latter makes himself hunch-backed (when Sunusun's father enters), or he cries like a child when one of Sunusun's grand children enters.

TAKAN vide malu seven

UKS'I, — the swan, — is one of the animal manifestations which was especially common among the Tungus of Yakutsk and Amur governments, but among the Birarchen it is almost forgotten.

US'I vide j'erga seven.

From the above given list of seven, and preliminary remarks it may be seen that the list is far from being complete, for as stated there may be created spirits by any new shaman and the alien groups present a rich source of new spirits. Yet the list might be good only for a certain moment, for the spirits are not only incorporated but they are also forgotten. The same is true of the shifting of spirits from the group of dona into the group of clan spirits.

341. When the Tungus go hunting they have a stick on the sharpened end of which they fix a piece of burning agaric. This is an important element in the Tungus complex for they cannot sometimes produce fire and without it may easily perish.

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