§ Широкогоровы §
toggle menu

Table of Contents

FOREWORD

TABLE OF CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER I. DIFFICULTIES OF AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE PSYCHOMENTAL COMPLEX

1. Psychomental complex; 2. Difficulties of investigation depending on the character of material; 3. Theories affecting investigator's work.

CHAPTER II. METHODS OF APPROACH TO AN ALIEN COMPLEX

4. Objective methods; 5. An outline of theory of ethnos; 6. Particular problems: illustrations of the theory of ethnos; 7. Schematic representation of the ethnic processes.

CHAPTER III. MATERIAL GATHERED AND ANALYSED

8. Author's approach to the investigation; 9. Material; 10. Direct ethnographic observations; 11. Presentation of the material.


PART ONE. POSITIVE KNOWLEDGE

CHAPTER IV. SOME FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTIONS

12. Preliminary remarks; 13. Animus; 14. Life; 15. Soul; 16. Spirit.

CHAPTER V. PRIMARY MILIEU

17. Earth and celestial bodies; 18. Year and its subdivisions; 19. Measures; 20. World and orientation; 21. Natural phenomena; 22. Plants; 23. Geography and means of communication.

CHAPTER VI. THE PRIMARY MILIEU (continued)

24. Classification of animals; 25. Anatomy, physiology and heredity; 26. Psychology and mentality of the animals.

CHAPTER VII. TECHNICAL ADAPTATION

27. Migrations; 28. Hunting; 29. Some other elements of the complex; 30. Medical art.

CHAPTER VIII. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION

31. Cognition of the social organization; 32. Group consciousness.

CHAPTER IX. VARIOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE PSYCHOMENTAL COMPLEX

33. Language; 34. Folklore; 35. Decorative art as one of manifestations of psychomental complex; 36. Accumulation of the facts.


PART TWO. HYPOTHESES

CHAPTER X. NATURE OF THE TUNGUS HYPOTHESES

37. General characteristic of hypotheses; 38. Complexes of spirits and their classification.

CHAPTER XI. SUPREME BEING AND MASTER SPIRITS

39. Buga; 40. Construction of the World; 41. Conception of «master spirit» and some principal spirits; 42. Manchu enduri and various Tungus spirits.

CHAPTER XII. SPIRITS FORMED FROM THE SOULS AND SPIRITS INCORPORATED INTO THESE GROUPS

43. Human soul; 44. Human first soul and olorgi fojengo exteriorated; 45. Groups of spirits; 46. Ancestors. Northern Tungus system; 47. Manchu ancestral clan spirits.

CHAPTER XIII. BURKAN, FUCHIXI AND OTHER SPIRITS CHIEFLY OF NON-ANCESTRAL ORIGIN

48. Preliminary note: classification, terms, diseases, roads, complexes and forms; 49. Clan spirits of the Northern Tungus; 50. Dona (foreign) burkan; 51. Spirits of the Manchus.

CHAPTER XIV. THE SPIRITS MASTERED

52. General characteristics of these spirits; 53. List of seven; 54. Vochko of the Manchus; 55. Spirits of other Tungus groups.

CHAPTER XV. VARIOUS HYPOTHESES

56. Hypotheses; 57. System of hypotheses.


PART THREE. PRACTICAL CONSEQUENCES OF HYPOTHESES

CHAPTER XVI. METHODS OF INFLUENCING SPIRITS

58. Preliminary remarks; 59.Classification of methods; 60. Placings for spirits; 61. Types of placings; 62. Reserved animals: Ongun and jasil; 63. Sacrifice; 64. Communication with the spirits by means of language; 65. Influence on spirits through their character.

CHAPTER XVII. SOULS AND THEIR MANAGING

66. Souls; 67. Death; 68. Preparation of the corpse for burial and managing of the first soul; 69. Liquidation of the corpse; 70. Special conditions of burial; 71. Last ceremony; 72. Further operations with the soul; 73. Clan priest- p'oyun saman; 74. Autumnal sacrifice; 75. Sacrifices and prayers to the ancestors among the Tungus.

CHAPTER XVIII. SPIRITS MANAGED WITHOUT SHAMANS AND OTHER SPECIALISTS ASSISTANCE

76. Spirit of Heaven; 77. Clan spirits; 78. Various spirits.

CHAPTER XIX. SPIRITS AND VARIOUS CASES DEALT WITH BY THE SPECIALISTS

79. Specialists; 80. Mafarism, 81. Mafarism among the Tungus.


PART FOUR. SHAMANISM

CHAPTER XX. PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF GROUPS INVESTIGATED

82. Preliminary remarks; 83. Psychic and mental troubles; 84. «Olonism», so-called «imitative mania»; 85. Imitation of movements; 86. Hysteria, 87. Self-introduction of spirits; 88. Various conditions during sleep, 89. Self-suggestion and suggestion, 90. Conclusion.

CHAPTER XXI. MASS AND INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOSIS AND ITS REGULATION

91. Mass psychosis in general; 92. Forms of psychosis and units affected;

93. Symbolization of psychoses and methods of treatment.

CHAPTER XXII. SHAMANISM IN GENERAL

94. Origin of the term «shamanism»; 95. Formal characters of shamanism; 96. Psychomental conditions of shamanism; 97. Shamanism.

CHAPTER XXIII. NOTES ON THE HISTORY OF SHAMANISM AND HYPOTHESIS AS TO ITS INITIAL FORM

98. Facts observed; 99. Buddhism; 100. Hypothesis: Shamanism stimulated by Buddhism; 101. Conclusions as introduction to the following chapters.

CHAPTER XXIV. SHAMANISTIC PARAPHERNALIA

102. Preliminary remark; 103. Costume (description); 104. Classification of costumes; 105. Drum; 106. Brass mirrors; 107. Placings for spirits and varia; 108. Attitude towards the paraphernalia; 109. Conclusion.

CHAPTER XXV. SHAMANISTIC PERFORMANCES (DESCRIPTION)

110. Shamanizing to the spirits of the lower world; 111. Shamanizing to the upper world; 112. Various forms of shamanising.

CHAPTER XXVI. CLASSIFICATION OF SHAMANISTIC PERFORMANCES

113. Divination and discovery, diagnosis and treatment; 114. Treatment of persons; 115. Settling of souls and their management; 116. Fighting of spirits and souls; 117. Sacrifice, varia and conclusions.

CHAPTER XXVII. ANALYSIS OF SHAMANISTIC PERFORMANCES

118. Preliminary remarks; 119. Technique of performance; 120. Assistant of the shaman; 121. Psychological technique; 122. Negative reactions and performances; 123. Psychological basis of performance; 124. Ritualism in shamanistic performances; 125. Influence of Manchu writing; 126. Various mechanisms maintaining shamanism.

CHAPTER XXVIII. THE SHAMAN'S ELECTION

127. Transmission of shamanship; 128. Individual condition for becoming shaman; 129. Recognition and election of a new shaman; 130. Cases of formal recognition; 131. A case of election among the Manchus.

CHAPTER XXIX. THE SHAMAN

132. Methods of the common thinking process; 133. Special methods; 134. Ecstasy; 135. Shaman and spirits; 136. Wars between the shamans;

137. Character and ability of the shaman; 138. Accumulation of knowledge by the shamans.

CHAPTER XXX. THE SHAMAN (CONTINUATION)

139. Shaman's social relations; 140. Economic position and difficulties of the shaman; 141. Giving up of shamanship and shaman's death; 142. Shaman's personality.

CHAPTER XXXI. PRESENT STATE AND FUTURE OF SHAMANISM

143. List of shamans among the groups investigated; 144. Shamanism among the Dahurs and Chinese of the Aigun district; 145. Difficulties met with by shamanism; 146. Past and present state of shamanism; 147. Special conditions of the Tungus cultural complex under alien influence; 148. Present state and future of shamanism.


CONCLUSION

CHAPTER XXXII. DIFFERENTIATION AND FUNCTION OF COMPLEXES

149. Tungus mentality in general; 150. Different complexes; 151. Formation and functioning of complexes.

CHAPTER XXXIII. EQUILIBRIUM OF THE COMPLEXES

152.Cognition and cultural complexes; 153. Self-regulation of the complexes;

154. Disequilibrium of the psychomental complex.

CHAPTER XXXIV. REGULATION OF THE PSYCHOMENTAL COMPLEX

155. Self-regulation; 156. Phenomenon of regulation.


I. GLOSSARY

1. Preliminary note; 2. Abbreviations; 3. Approximate phonetic equivalents of transcription; 4. Tungus glossary.

II. LIST OF WORKS QUOTED

III. INDEX OF AUTHORS AND INVESTIGATORS

IV. INDEX OF SPIRITS

V. INDEX OF ETHNICAL UNITS AND GROUPS

VI. GENERAL INDEX

 
Электропочта shirokogorov@gmail.com
© 2009 - 2016